View graph of relations

The effect of three wheat grain treatments on the zootechnical performance (feed intake, milk production and milk fat and protein production) of dairy cattle was studied with 18 Holstein cows in each of two feeding trials (both a 3 X 3 Latin square design). Rolled wheat, NaOH treated wheat and immature wheat ensiled with Graintona-Plus (Vee-lik, Zuienkerke, Belgium) were compared in a ration with fixed DM proportions of wheat, maize silage and prewilted grass silage. The nutritive value of the three wheat treatments was derived from in situ rumen degradability studies and from in vivo digestibility experiments. In situ rumen incubations showed that NaOH treatment strongly decreased protein and starch degradability of the wheat. Due to that importantly decreased starch degradability NaOH treated wheat may be a source of starch with a reduced risk of rumen acidosis as compared to rolled wheat. On the other hand, due to the ensiling, immature wheat had a very high washable starch fraction, despite the Graintona-Plus treatment. The protein value differed importantly, with the DPI (true protein digested in the small intestine; [Tamminga, S., van Straalen, W.M., Subnel, A.P.J., Meijer, R.G.M., Steg, A., Wever, C.J.G., Blok, M.C., 1994. The Dutch protein evaluation system: the DVE/OEB-system. Livest. Prod. Sci. 40, 139-155]) value being 103, 125 and 76 g/kg DM for rolled, NaOH treated and ensiled wheat, respectively. The RDPB (degraded protein balance; [Tamminga, S., van Straalen, W.M., Subnel, A.P.J., Meijer, R.G.M., Steg, A., Wever, C.J.G., Blok, M.C., 1994. The Dutch protein evaluation system: the DVE/OEB-system. Livest. Prod. Sci. 40, 139-155]) value of the NaOH treated wheat was -51 vs. -37 and -33 g/kg DM for rolled and ensiled wheat. In vivo digestibility trials with Holstein cows indicated that the net energy value of the wheat treatments was not significantly different. In Trial 1, all diets were formulated to supply 105% of the requirements of DPI and net energy lactation (NEL; [Van Es, A.J.H., 1978. Feed evaluation for ruminants: I. The system in use from May 1977 onwards in the Netherlands. Livest. Prod. Sci. 5, 331-345]) and a safe RDPB level (+/- 200 g/day). On average 4.6 kg wheat DM was fed daily. Following trial 1, trial 2 was carried out, with the maize silage, grass silage and wheat fed in the same proportions as in trial 1, but fed ad libitum, to compare the intake level of the three diets. In both trials, the NaOH treated wheat resulted in the best performance with importantly increased milk yield and the highest yield of fat and protein corrected milk. Ensiled immature wheat resulted in a significant lower milk production and milk protein yield and in a higher milk fat content. In trial 1, DM-intake of the three groups was comparable due to the experimental design. In trial 2 intake of the cows fed NaOH treated wheat was significantly higher (23.5 vs. 21.1 kg/day for the other two groups). (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalLivestock Science
Volume99
Issue number2-3
Pages (from-to)267-276
Number of pages10
ISSN1871-1413
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1-Feb-2006

ID: 1296848