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Greening and producing: An economic assessment framework for integrating trees in cropping systems. / Van Vooren, Laura; Reubens, Bert; Pardon, Paul; Lauwers, Ludwig; Wauters, Erwin; van Winsen, Frankwin; Verheyen, Kris; Broekx, Steven; Reheul, Dirk.

In: Agricultural Systems, Vol. 148, 25.06.2016, p. 44-57.

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-article

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@article{b3b431c182a04f89809f7b4fddf0f313,
title = "Greening and producing: An economic assessment framework for integrating trees in cropping systems",
abstract = "Environmental measures in an agricultural context often lead to extra constraints in current farming. This suggests trade-offs between the environmental objectives and profitability. Whether trade-offs exist, or may be turned into win-win, depends on creative farm options to comply new constraints. This paper concentrates on Ecological Focus Areas as a new EU Common Agricultural Policy greening requirement, and investigates profitability changes of two greening options with permanent woody elements, hedgerows and alley cropping. We predicted discounted gross margins for a hedgerow and alley cropping greening option and fourmarket scenarios on a representative arable farm in Flanders (Belgium). Starting from the tree row, over a distance of 1.64 times the tree height, relative crop yield is 70{\%} as compared to a treeless situation.Between 1.64 and 9.52 times the tree height, relative yield is 107{\%}. Beyond that point, the effect is considered negligible. Discounted gross margins are calculated to account for the time horizon. Relative discounted gross margins at farm level, compared to the business as usual option, vary between 91{\%} and108{\%}, depending on market conditions and policy support. The calculations show that fulfilment of the 5{\%} ecological focus area greening requirement on arable farms with hedgerows and alley cropping only becomeseconomically competitive to the traditional cropping systems with extra financial stimuli (e.g. greening payments). We also show and discuss how the calculations can be fine-tuned and used in policy making, e.g. by i) getting better insights in the tree-crop interactions, ii) including the effect of e.g. crop type, tree species, tree line space and tree line orientation in the meta-information, iii) evaluating this conditional competitiveness and suggesting a better linking between subsidy level and ecological value and ecosystem services and iv) exploring novel valorization channels for wood products.",
author = "{Van Vooren}, Laura and Bert Reubens and Paul Pardon and Ludwig Lauwers and Erwin Wauters and {van Winsen}, Frankwin and Kris Verheyen and Steven Broekx and Dirk Reheul",
year = "2016",
month = "6",
day = "25",
language = "English",
volume = "148",
pages = "44--57",
journal = "Agricultural Systems",
issn = "0308-521X",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Greening and producing: An economic assessment framework for integrating trees in cropping systems

AU - Van Vooren, Laura

AU - Reubens, Bert

AU - Pardon, Paul

AU - Lauwers, Ludwig

AU - Wauters, Erwin

AU - van Winsen, Frankwin

AU - Verheyen, Kris

AU - Broekx, Steven

AU - Reheul, Dirk

PY - 2016/6/25

Y1 - 2016/6/25

N2 - Environmental measures in an agricultural context often lead to extra constraints in current farming. This suggests trade-offs between the environmental objectives and profitability. Whether trade-offs exist, or may be turned into win-win, depends on creative farm options to comply new constraints. This paper concentrates on Ecological Focus Areas as a new EU Common Agricultural Policy greening requirement, and investigates profitability changes of two greening options with permanent woody elements, hedgerows and alley cropping. We predicted discounted gross margins for a hedgerow and alley cropping greening option and fourmarket scenarios on a representative arable farm in Flanders (Belgium). Starting from the tree row, over a distance of 1.64 times the tree height, relative crop yield is 70% as compared to a treeless situation.Between 1.64 and 9.52 times the tree height, relative yield is 107%. Beyond that point, the effect is considered negligible. Discounted gross margins are calculated to account for the time horizon. Relative discounted gross margins at farm level, compared to the business as usual option, vary between 91% and108%, depending on market conditions and policy support. The calculations show that fulfilment of the 5% ecological focus area greening requirement on arable farms with hedgerows and alley cropping only becomeseconomically competitive to the traditional cropping systems with extra financial stimuli (e.g. greening payments). We also show and discuss how the calculations can be fine-tuned and used in policy making, e.g. by i) getting better insights in the tree-crop interactions, ii) including the effect of e.g. crop type, tree species, tree line space and tree line orientation in the meta-information, iii) evaluating this conditional competitiveness and suggesting a better linking between subsidy level and ecological value and ecosystem services and iv) exploring novel valorization channels for wood products.

AB - Environmental measures in an agricultural context often lead to extra constraints in current farming. This suggests trade-offs between the environmental objectives and profitability. Whether trade-offs exist, or may be turned into win-win, depends on creative farm options to comply new constraints. This paper concentrates on Ecological Focus Areas as a new EU Common Agricultural Policy greening requirement, and investigates profitability changes of two greening options with permanent woody elements, hedgerows and alley cropping. We predicted discounted gross margins for a hedgerow and alley cropping greening option and fourmarket scenarios on a representative arable farm in Flanders (Belgium). Starting from the tree row, over a distance of 1.64 times the tree height, relative crop yield is 70% as compared to a treeless situation.Between 1.64 and 9.52 times the tree height, relative yield is 107%. Beyond that point, the effect is considered negligible. Discounted gross margins are calculated to account for the time horizon. Relative discounted gross margins at farm level, compared to the business as usual option, vary between 91% and108%, depending on market conditions and policy support. The calculations show that fulfilment of the 5% ecological focus area greening requirement on arable farms with hedgerows and alley cropping only becomeseconomically competitive to the traditional cropping systems with extra financial stimuli (e.g. greening payments). We also show and discuss how the calculations can be fine-tuned and used in policy making, e.g. by i) getting better insights in the tree-crop interactions, ii) including the effect of e.g. crop type, tree species, tree line space and tree line orientation in the meta-information, iii) evaluating this conditional competitiveness and suggesting a better linking between subsidy level and ecological value and ecosystem services and iv) exploring novel valorization channels for wood products.

M3 - A1: Web of Science-article

VL - 148

SP - 44

EP - 57

JO - Agricultural Systems

JF - Agricultural Systems

SN - 0308-521X

ER -